The paper "Acid Rain" is a worthy example of a research paper on environmental studies.
Acid rain is turned acidic because consist raised stages of hydrogen ions (low pH). Research has shown that the consequences of acid rain are harmful and affects the ecological system of the environment. Hence, this paper will be discussing ecological negative outcomes of acid rain which are on the aquatic ecosystem, soils, forest trees, material and building, human health and psychological venture of animals.
The causation of acid rain is the discharge of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which mixes with the water atoms in the atmosphere to create acids. The release of such pollutants starts from human activities, which involve the burning of waste and fossil fuels in vehicles and power plants. Other causes involve smelting of iron and different metallic (Cu and Zn) ores, petroleum industry and construction of sulphuric acids. These components merge with the reactants existing in the environment and emerge into acid depositions. Furthermore, oceans and brief volcanic eruptions work as the raw source of sulphur pollutants.
Moving towards the consequence, acidification of soil occurs due to acid rain and this increases the interchange of nutrient cations such as Magnesium or Calcium and hydrogen ion. Once the acid is dissolved in the soil it loses its fertility. Once fertility is lost, the plants’ growth is reduced. Not only is this, but decomposition rate and the cycle of the nutrient also adversely affected (Singh &Agrawal et al. 2008).
Next, the effect of acid rain is also on forest trees. The indication that forest is affected by these rains are the damages of tissues of the plant through roots and foliage, lessen canopy sheathing and expiring of trees (Welburn et al. 1998). Moreover, several researches show that the most vulnerable organ that is prone to get affected quickly is a leaf. When these leaves are revealed to brace low pH acid rain, the neurotic patch appears on the leaf blade that is majorly off-limits to species’ epidermis. Soon, leaves are unable to endure the acids and decompose completely (Singh &Agrawal et al. 2008). Furthermore, another research on the United States and Europe illustrates that assembling if forest biomass has declined annually and severely due to these acidic rains and the forest ecosystem is likely to be highly harmed with the continuous contribution to strong acid by the environment (Likens, Driscoll&Buso et al. 1996).
We will now move to discuss the harmful effects of acid rain on the aquatic and freshwater ecosystem. Lakes or seas that are affected by these rains show immediate and clear symptoms of acidifications. Not only this but, the submarine life is also very negatively affected, as studies show that the mortality rate of fishes has increased, their reproduction have alarmingly decreased and weeds present underwater are also found to be dead due to these acidic precipitations (Singh &Agrawal et al. 2008). Similarly, freshwater organisms have been subjected to acid rain at all trophic stages, which include primary and secondary consumers and decomposers, in addition to this, rare species have been lost and reduction in production and growth has taken place (Haines et al. 1981). Likewise, the aquatic ecosystem in the United States, Canada, Sweden, Norway and the United Kingdom all have been attacked by acid rain effects and lakes in these places have been labelled acidified lakes. The sources which help us find if and how acid rain has affected the water can be extracted from the sediments found in a sea or lake. However, areas that are less polluted have shown relatively low damages to freshwater by rain (Schindler et al. 1998).
Objects such as building are also harmed by acid rain. Structure made of limestone and marble carries a huge amount of carbonate that has been identified for more than hundreds of decades have communicated the repercussion of we acid deposition on ancient buildings and constructions. Enormous buildings in major cities, which are more polluted, are being damaged by the exhibition to cloud water consisting high level of acidity in them for a long period of time (Xie& Zhou et al. 2004). Hence, to support this information, research was also carried out which shows the differentiation in the material or stone when they were initially installed or used, respectively, in a building and after they were exposed to heavy rainfall over a period of time, was very high.
Acid rain has also affected mankind race very negatively. It is common knowledge that diseases such as skin cancer are a result of being exposed to acid rain. Moreover, humans have been indirectly subjected to the negativity of acid rain by consuming vegetables and white meat grown in the forest and inhibiting in the waters, which are polluted from same acidic raining (Goyer, Bachmann, Clarkson, Ferris Jr, Graham, Mushak&Wood et al. 1985).
To sum up the aforementioned consequences of acid rain, we can say that from environment to human race no one and nothing is protected from acid rain and its harmful effect. If this acidic raining carries on just like before, we are then in danger of losing our natural resources such as plantation and water and even our dear ones. Hence, strategies and solutions are in dire need to reduce pollution which ultimately leads to acid rain.
Singh, A., &Agrawal, M. (2008).Acid rain and its ecological consequences.Journal of Environmental Biology, 29(1).
Likens, G. E., Driscoll, C. T., &Buso, D. C. (1996). Long-term effects of acid rain: response and recovery of a forest ecosystem. Science-AAAS-Weekly Paper Edition.
Haines, T. A. (1981). Acidic precipitation and its consequences for aquatic ecosystems: a review. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 110(6).
Schindler, D. W. (1988). Effects of Acid Rain on Freshwater Ecosystems.Science (Washington), 239(4836).
Welburn, A. (1988). Air pollution and acid rain: the biological impact. Longman Scientific & Technical.
Goyer, R. A., Bachmann, J., Clarkson, T. W., Ferris Jr, B. G., Graham, J., Mushak, P. & Wood, J. M. (1985). Potential human health effects of acid rain: report of a workshop. Environmental Health Perspectives.
Xie, S., Qi, L., & Zhou, D. (2004).Investigation of the effects of acid rain on the deterioration of cement concrete using accelerated tests established in laboratory. Atmospheric Environment, 38(27).