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The Impact of Ethnicity and Racial Aspects on Criminal Profiling – Research Guider

The paper 'The Impact of Ethnicity and Racial Aspects on Criminal Profiling' is an outstanding example of a research paper on social science.
In criminal profiling, the race has been found to play a critical role in indicating the pattern of criminal activities. Security experts have everything to believe that areas with black communities experience high levels of criminal activities. The profiling of criminal incidences has been essential in assisting policymakers to formulate policies that best combat the issue of security. Reasons et al., (2016) was among the researchers who developed the research to learn about how race and crime-related. Researchers include Reasons, and colleagues have been involved in different field studies in various countries (De Schutter, & Ringelheim, 2008). In this proposed study, the researcher intends to examine the role of ethnicity, and racial aspects play in criminal occurrences. It is within the knowledge of the researcher that racial and crime aspects in the United States are related in one way or the other. The researcher as well is aware that the racial injustice by the police positively determines the criminal profiling systems in New York and other highly populated states. Finally, it is believed that the researcher understands that the attitudes by the police toward the racial differences have a negative influence on the accuracy and the effectiveness of criminal profiling.


For this proposed study, the participants will be the indigenous people who are incarcerated. The interview will involve rating the various aspects that result in criminal profiling based on racial and ethnic differences. The rating values will range from 1 to 5 for all the aspects that will be under the study to define the existing relationship between race and crime.

IV #1: Police racial injustice

Considering the already knowledge the research has that black people are the majority of the incarcerated group, he would like to find out the rate at which the participants believe that criminal profiling is based on the racial injustice practiced by the authority. The participants will be expected to rate the racial injustice with the rate values of between 1 and 5 in the presented survey sheet. This variable included two levels one defining the existence of police injustice where the criminal has committed the crime in the first place or where there is no crime committed. The second level indicates where the participants believe that police injustice exists even when no serious crime is believed to have been caused.

IV#2: Police attitudes toward racial differences

The researcher will want to see how the participants perceive the attitudes of the police towards the racial differences and how this affects the incarceration of some groups from the particular community especially that of black origin. All the participants will independently make an indication of the rate value they feel best describes how the police attitudes towards some racial groups turn out to contribute to the police imprisonment of the black community. The independent variable will involve two levels with one level indicating the white offenders and the other indicating the black crime offenders.

DV: Criminal profiling

The level of criminal profiling based on ethnicity and races will be determined by considering the allocated values on the aspects of police racial injustice and the attitude of the police towards the racial differences that exist among the groups. The dependent variable will be operationalized after considering the rate values for both aspects.

The study will involve 40 participants all responding to the two independent aspects at all levels. The most significant values to be considered for the study involve the rate values indicated by the participants for the various aspects at all levels. The below table is the results of the researcher’s hypothesis.


Table 1: Hypothetical Results    


Police attitudes toward racial differences (IV #2)


Level 1 –Africans

Level 2 – Other communities



Level 1 – Offence committed




Level 2 – Offence not committed




 The raw cells indicate the two levels of the police racial injustice IV where the injustice occurs in cases of the offense having been committed or the offense not being committed. The columns show the two levels of Police attitudes toward racial differences, an independent variable categorizing the people of the black communities criminally profiled. The first level indicates that of the African American while the second is composed of the other black communities besides the Africans (Welch, 2007). The values presented in the table show the average rates indicated by the respondents at all each levels. The highest value involves level one for both the independent variables, racial injustice, and police attitudes (Welch, 2007). The blacks who commit offenses are the most affected people who face imprisonment and are the majority of the incarcerated people. Other communities who commit offenses and the African Americans who do not commit any offense were averagely rated the same. The non-African Americans who have not committed any offense were less likely to face imprisonment.

The results of the study present multiple issues that confirm the hypothesis of the researcher. First, the average rate value for the police racial injustice indicates having a significant effect on the criminal profiling of the people (Welch, 2007). This is evidence that there is a lot of injustice for the people of particular races who are most likely to be profiled as the criminal as compared to others (De Schutter, & Ringelheim, 2008). Even in this case, they are not taken through the just system if they are to be found guilty. Hence, it is a fact that the criminal justice system was shown to have a challenge in addressing significant problems linked to racial and ethnic bases aspects. However, the country recognizes the fact that race plays a vital role in addressing criminal acts (De Schutter, & Ringelheim, 2008). As a result, it has extended its position in rolling out new policies aimed at boosting criminal profiling. It also applied different theoretical perspectives and principles to describe the instances and methods of criminal profiling.

Thus, it is true that in the United States and other countries like Canada, there is a strong relationship between crime and race or ethnicity. This, however, seems to be a significant challenge faced by the other diverse ethnic groups in the United States and other countries (Welch, 2007). The situation, however, calls for quick action to help address the issue of criminal profiling based on ethnicity and racial differences (De Schutter, & Ringelheim, 2008).  Part of the measures to be taken involves the routine collection of ethnic data to ensure that there is multicultural participation of all the communities. There is a need for the criminal justice system of the country to outline in reducing racial based criminal profiling. All the minority groups should be exposed to the same treatment especially concerning the allocation of resources to keep the members away from criminal activities. 


De Schutter, O., & Ringelheim, J. (2008). Ethnic profiling: A rising challenge for European human rights law. The Modern Law Review, 71(3), 358-384.

Welch, K. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 23(3), 276-288.

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