The paper 'The Impact of Race on Criminal Profiling' is an exceptional example of a research proposal on sociology.
In American society, race has been found to play a critical role in describing the pattern of criminal activities. This has resulted in police discrimination against blacks as one of the significant problems the society is facing. Following the increased case of police discrimination, this study aim at addressing the question of how this unequal treatment against the Black American impacts criminal profiling of this population. Thus, to help solve the research question, some independent conceptual variables and the dependent variable will be identified. The independent variables include police racial injustice and the attitudes of the police towards racial differences. The dependent variable is the criminal profiling of Blacks.
From the studies carried out by the security experts, it is well-known that the most affected group of criminal profiling is the group composed of Black Americans. Studies in areas occupied by the black communities indicate that these places experience high levels of criminal activities. In the process, policymakers use the indicators of these studies to make decisions on ways of combating security-related issues. The article by Mburu & Helbich, (2015) showed criminal profiling as one of the methods that describe details information about the offenders thus reducing the rates of searching criminals. According to the findings of this study, mobility efforts are on the increase where offenders who steal from the neighborhood travel the longest distance. The second article is that of Reasons et al., (2016) who aimed to find the relationship between race and crime. The analysis of this subject was then conducted in Canada regarding ethnic, racial aspects. The third article belongs to Leese et al., (2014) who aimed to demonstrate major profiling strategies that could reduce instances such as racial injustices in the criminal justice system.
Part II: Method
The research design involved in this study was a survey of the incarcerated group responding to the two independent aspects at all levels. For instance, police racial injustice whether is high or low among Black Americans and the same to police attitudes toward racial differences whether it is high or low among the same group. The most significant values to be considered for the study involve the rate values indicated by the participants for the various aspects at all levels. The dependent variable will be police criminal profiling which depends on how justice or the view of police towards the blacks.
For reliability of carrying out the study, because most of the participants are the blacks who have been incarcerated following the criminal profiling based on the race, the independent variables will be manipulated. The participants will then be randomly assigned in two categories of those who have been incarcerated because of the police racial injustice and those who face imprisonment following the police attitudes towards their racial difference. The rate values indicated by the participants will be used to measure the independent variables by finding out how far the participants agree with the given reasons for their imprisonment. Measuring the dependent variable which is criminal profiling would be considered following the numbers of participants by race who indicate agree to have been imprisoned because of the factors of racial discrimination by police.
Part III: Expected Results
2 x 2 AROVA
Police attitudes toward racial differences (IV #2)
Level 1 –Africans
Level 2 – Other communities
Police racial injustice (IV#2)
Level 1- Offence committed
Offense not committed
The independent variables each show two levels of the row cells indicating police racial injustice IV where the injustice occurs in cases of the offense having been committed or the crime not being committed. In the columns are the levels of police attitudes toward racial differences which indicate various races from blacks, others, and the whites. The main effect being predicated is the racial discrimination of the rate of criminal profiling among various people of different races.
Part IV: Discussion
The highest value involves level one for the independent variables, racial injustice, and police attitudes. The blacks who commit offenses are the most affected people who face imprisonment and are the majority of the incarcerated people. Other communities who commit offenses and the African Americans who do not commit any offense were averagely rated the same. The non-African Americans who have not committed any offense were less likely to face imprisonment. The results of the study align with the hypothesis since both the independent variables, the police racial injustice and the police attitudes towards the racial differences indicate having a significant contribution towards more blacks being criminally profiled (Welch, 2007). The evidence of criminal profiling is shown from the high average rates indicated by the black group on the conditions that led to their imprisonment. Limitations experienced during the study involved information biasness from the respondents who feared further criminal vindication.
Leese, M. (2014). The new profiling: Algorithms, black boxes, and the failure of anti-discriminatory safeguards in the European Union. Security Dialogue, 45(5), 494-511.
Mburu, L., & Helbich, M. (2015). Evaluating the accuracy and effectiveness of criminal geographic profiling methods: The case of Dandora, Kenya. The Professional Geographer, 67(1), 110-120.
Reasons, C., Hassan, S., Ma, M., Monchalin, L., Bige, M., Paras, C., & Arora, S. (2016). Race and Criminal Justice in Canada. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 11(2).
Welch, K. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 23(3), 276-288.